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Glossary

The following is a glossary of some of the common terms used in this industry.

Term Detail
   
AISI American iron and steel institute.
Annealing The process of heating steel and then cooling it slowly to produce desired results.
Anodizing A process of coating aluminium by anodic treatment resulting in a thin film of aluminium oxide of extreme hardness.
Austenitic steel The largest category of stainless steel.
Basic oxygen furnace The chief method of producing steel. 
Bend test Various tests used to determine the toughness and ductility of flat rolled metal sheet, strip or plate, in which the material is bent around its axis or around an outside radius.
Billet A semi-finished steel product that has been rolled or forged from an ingot or strand cast.
Blast furnace The furnace used to produce iron.
Bloom A semi-finished steel product that has been rolled or forged from an ingot or strand cast.
BS British Standard
Cladding Method of applying a stainless steel coating to carbon steel or lower-alloy steel.
Coke A processed form of coal.
Cold-rolled strip (sheet) Sheet steel that has been pickled and run through a cold-reduction mill.
Duplex A category of stainless steel with high amounts of chromium and moderate nickel content.
Electric arc furnace A method of producing steel to exact specifications.
Extrusion Shaping metal into a chosen continuous form by forcing it through a die of appropriate shape.
Ferritic Ferritic stainless steels are plain chromium steels with no significant nickel content.
Ferroalloy A metal product commonly used as a raw material feed in steelmaking, usually containing iron and other metals.
Ferrous Metals that consist primarily of iron.
Heat (of steel) A batch of refined steel.
Heat treatment Altering the properties of steel by subjecting it to a series of temperature changes.
Hot extrusion The forming of material of continuous cross section by forcing it through a die in a press.
Impact test Test designed to determine, the resistance of metal to breakage by impact.
Induction hardening A process of hardening a ferrous alloy by heating it above the transformation range by means of electrical induction, and then cooling as required.
Induction heating A process of heating by electrical induction.
Jig saw steel Hardened, tempered and bright polished with round edges.
Low-carbon steel Steel with less than 0.005% carbon.
Mechanical properties Those properties of a material that reveal the elastic and inelastic reaction when force is applied, or that involve the relationship between stress and strain.
Melting range The range of temperature in which an alloy melts.
Open hearth furnace A broad, shallow hearth to refine pig iron and scrap into steel.
Pellets Iron ore or limestone particles are rolled into little balls in a balling drum and hardened by heat.
Permalloy Nickel alloys containing about 20 to 60% iron.
Pickling The process of chemically removing scale or oxide from metal products to obtain a clean surface.
Piercing The process used to make seamless pipe and tubing from semi-finished products, called tube rounds.
Pig iron A metallic product from the blast furnace containing more than 90 percent iron.
Plasticity The ability of a metal to be deformed extensively without rupture.
Porosity The percentage of pore space in a material.
Quenching In the heat treating of metals, the step of cooling metals rapidly in order to obtain desired properties.
Secondary steel Steel that does not meet the original customer's specifications because of a defect in its chemistry, gauge or surface quality.
Skelp Steel sheet or plate from which welded tubing or pipe is made.
Slab A semi-finished steel product that is hot-rolled down from an ingot or strand cast.
Tin plate Thin sheet steel with a very thin coating of metallic tin. Tin plate is used primarily in can making.

The following is information about elements in the periodic table

Element

Symbol

Atomic number

Relative atomic mass*

Actinium

Ac

89

 

Aluminium

Al

13

26.9815

Americium

Am

95

 

Antimony

Sb

51

121.75

Argon

Ar

18

39.948

Arsenic

As

33

74.9216

Astatine

At

85

 

Barium

Ba

56

137.34

Berkelium

Bk

97

 

Beryllium

Be

4

9.0122

Bismuth

Bi

83

208.98

Boron

B

5

10.811

Bromine

Br

35

79.909

Cadmium

Cd

48

112.4

Caesium

Cs

55

132.905

Calcium

Ca

20

40.08

Californium

Cf

98

 

Crbon

C

6

12.01115

Cerium

Ce

58

140.12

Chlorine

Cl

17

35.453

Chromium

Cr

24

51.996

Cobalt

Co

27

58.9332

Copper

Cu

29

63.54

Curium

Cm

96

 

Dysprosium

Dy

66

162.5

Einsteinium

Es

99

 

Erbium

Er

68

167.26

Europium

Eu

63

151.96

Fermium

Fm

100

 

Fluorine

Fm

9

18.9984

Francium

Fr

87

 

Gadolinium

Gd

64

157.25

Gallium

Ga

31

69.72

Germanium

Ge

32

72.59

Gold

Au

79

196.967

Hafnium

Hf

72

178.49

Helium

He

2

4.0026

Holmium

Ho

67

164.93

Hydrogen

H

1

1.00797

Indium

In

49

114.82

Iodine

In

53

126.9044

Iridium

Ir

77

192.2

Iron

Fe

26

55.847

Krypton

Kr

36

83.8

Lanthanum

La

57

138.91

Lawrencium

Lw

103

 

Lead

Pb

82

207.19

Lithium

Li

3

6.939

Lutetium

Lu

71

174.97

Magnesium

Mg

12

24.312

Manganese

Mn

25

54.938

Mendelevium

Md

101

 

Mercury

Hg

80

200.59

Molybdenum

Mo

42

95.94

Neodymium

Nd

60

144.24

Neon

Ne

10

20.179

Neptunium

Np

93

 

Nickel

Ni

28

58.71

Niobium

Nb

41

92.906

Nitrogen

N

7

14.0067

Nobelium

No

102

 

Osmium

Os

76

190.2

Oxygen

O

8

15.9994

Palladium

Pd

46

106.4

Phosphorus

P

15

30.9738

Platinum

Pt

78

195.09

Plutonium

Pu

94

 

Polonium

Po

84

 

Potassium

K

19

39.102

Praseodymium

Pr

59

140.907

Promethium

Pm

61

 

Protactinium

Pa

91

 

Radium

Ra

88

 

Radon

Rn

86

 

Rhenium

Re

75

186.2

Rhodium

Rh

45

102.905

Rubidium

Rb

37

85.47

Ruthenium

Ru

44

101.07

Samarium

Sm

62

150.35

Scandium

Sc

21

44.956

Selenium

Se

34

78.96

Silicon

Si

14

28.086

Silver

Ag

47

107.868

Sodium

Na

11

22.9898

Strontium

Sr

38

87.62

Sulphur

S

16

32.064

Tantalum

Ta

73

180.948

Technetium

Tc

43

 

Tellurium

Te

52

127.6

Terbium

Tb

65

158.924

Thallium

Tl

81

204.37

Thorium

Th

90

232.038

Thulium

Tm

69

168.934

Tin

Sn

50

118.69

Titanium

Ti

22

47.9

Tungsten

W

74

183.85

Uranium

U

92

238.03

Vanadium

V

23

50.942

Xenon

Xe

54

131.3

Ytterbium

Yb

70

173.04

Yttrium

Y

39

88.905

Zinc

Zn

30

65.37

Zirconium

Zr

40

91.22

*Relative atomic masses are based on internationally agreed figures

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